The Environment: Problems and Solutions

Should anyone attempt a brief characterization of the present-day environment problems, he would find it beyond the competence of an individual scientist. For the environmental situation has long become a subject of separate and joint research efforts of biologists, chemists, and biochemists who have to combine their knowledge with the information supplied by students of geology, psychology and philosophy hurriedly joining in. Yet, if stated briefly, one of the causes of the present day environmental situation should be sought in the lack of a balanced development of particular fields of knowledge, and of an adequate picture of the intricately operating whole which is our planet.

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Gemini, about my sign!!!

Gemini, the sign of the Twins, is dual-natured, elusive, complex and contradictory. On the one hand it produces the virtue of versatility, and on the other the vices of two-facedness and flightiness. The sign is linked with Mercury, the planet of childhood and youth, and its subjects tend to have the graces and faults of the young. When they are good, they are very attractive; when they are bad they are more the worse for being the charmers they are. Like children they are lively, and happy, if circumstances are right for them, or egocentric, imaginative and restless. They take up new activities enthusiastically. To them life is a game which must always be full of fresh moves and continuous entertainment, free of labor and routine.


I am asked by the Faculty of Law, of L.M Gumilyev to provide a brief summary of my forthcoming monograph on direct democracy. In this study, I compared legal and political issues of contemporary direct democracy in the following polities:Switzerland,Italy,American States,France,Denmark,Ireland, theUKandTurkey.

Devices of direct democracy are the constitutional instruments where public votes on a certain issue. They may be largely divided into referendums and popular initiatives. 

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Direct democracy promotion: new issues or opportunities?

The processes of globalization of law and development of modern computer sciences and information technologies bring new aspects to the development of modern democracy and re-raise the question of direct power by the people.

In the second millennium came the idea of transformation of a representative democracy based on the electronic voting that is a direct vote. In the West it was called e-democracy and e-democracy, as well as a computer or «telematics» (connection of a computer, television and telephone) democracy. It turns out that e-democracy back to the origins of the democratic idea, that is, to direct democracy.

This issue raises such questions as: whether there is a reasonable cause to believe that over time, representative democracy will transform into a direct «telematics» democracy.

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Influence of democratic reforms оn the educational system of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Democracy (Greek δημοκρατία — «people’s authority» from δñμος — «the people» and κράτος — «authority, power») – is a political system where the people are only legitimate source of authority.

In accordance with Article 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan «The people shall be the only source of state power. The people shall exercise power directly through an all-nation referendum and free elections as well as delegate the execution of their power to state institutions»[1]. It means thatKazakhstanhas a democratic regime and stable constitutional basis.

Since the independence theRepublicofKazakhstanbecame an independent subject of international relations. Independence enabled the country to order their own destiny and the main dream of every nation and people had come true for the people of Kazakhstan.

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